Tyre Pressure Monitoring System  
 

Such systems are popularly known in the industry as “TPMS”. For over 15 years, the industry has been working on the development of a system that can measure the operating tyre pressure during a drive and warn the driver of the vehicle of under-inflation or pressure-loss, in the case of a puncture.

These systems can also measure the temperature of the tyre in use and warn the driver in the event of an increase or decrease in the operating temperature.

The operating limits of pressure and temperature can be set in the system. It shall have higher as well as lower limits.

These systems are wireless and are operated through the use of RF technology, where a sensor and transmitter are fitted in the tyres and a receiver and display unit is installed on the dashboard of the vehicle.
There are two types of TPMS – Direct systems and Indirect systems.

DIRECT SYSTEM:


Attach a pressure sensor/transmitter to the vehicle’s wheel inside the tyre’s air chamber. An in-car receiver warns the driver in real time if the pressure in any one of the tyres falls below the pre-determined level.

INDIRECT SYSTEM:


Use the vehicle’s antilock braking system’s wheel-speed sensors to compare the
rational speed of one tyre against that of the others. If one tyre is low in pressure, it will rotate at a different number of revolutions per km/mile than that of the other three tyres and alert the vehicle’s onboard computer.

 
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  Tyre  
 

The tyre is the only component that links the car to the ground and facilitates the movement of the vehicle.

Tyres need to be looked after, as they play a major role in the safety of passengers. But do they get our attention?

Tyres are made of individual layers of fabric and steel encased in rubber. If a tyre is allowed to run low on pressure, the rubber is forced to stretch beyond the elastic limits of the fabric and steel reinforcing cords. When this happens, the bond between various materials can weaken, and the tyre eventually fails upon the prolonging of such conditions.

Tyre pressure is an important factor and needs to be maintained as per the tyre’s manufacturers. The tyre’s optimal operating conditions are outlined in the vehicle’s manual, kept near the door lock.

Maintaining the right pressure increases safety while driving and prolongs tyre life and fuel efficiency. Moreover, it increases travelling comfort and extends the life of suspension assemblies.

Risks of Low pressure:
Weakens the tyre and changes the driving behavior of the car.
Lowers the contact force between the tyre and road.
Heightens the rolling and drag and consequently increases fuel consumption.
In the case of front tyres, it causes an indirect steering behaviour. (What is ‘indirect’ steering behavior intended to convey?)
In rear tyres, it increases the risk of over-steering.
Leads to increase in tyre temperature: high temperature worsens the abrasion of the tyre.
All this may cause a sudden bursting of the tyre.

Risk of High Tyre Pressure:
Lowers the contact force between tyre and road.
In front tyres, it increases the risk of under-steering.
In the rear tyres increases the risk of over-steering,
Leads to irregular abrasion.

Benefits
- Increased fuel economy.
- Longer tyre life (less wear and tear)
- No tyre blow-outs (No accidents)
- Correct vehicle handling (No under- or over-steering)
- Riding comfort
- Traveling comfort.
- Longer suspension-assembly life.


Added Benefits With TPMS

- It monitors the health of the tyre.
- Tyre pressure and temperature are monitored in real time.
- The driver is alerted of a puncture when it occurs.

 
 
  Air Pressure  
 

Correct air pressure is required so as to allow each tyre to support the weight of the vehicle.
There is a minimum pressure as for each vehicle, defined on the basis of the tyre type and size and load of the vehicle.

Studies in USA have shown that 26% of cars and 29% of trucks operate with the tyre pressure of at least one tyre at a level that is below specifications by as much as 25 percent, which not only has negative impact on fuel economy and tyre wear, but also poses significant safety risk to the motorist.

Tyre pressure alters naturally with ambient air temperature. Pressure also increases when the vehicle is driven, due to the flexing of the tyre’s side walls and tread, which are a result of the vehicle’s load and engine input.
Inflation pressure, if not correct, has an effect on fuel economy.
Drivers do not check the tyre pressure very often, and this leads to the general under-inflation of tyres and therefore to an increase in fuel consumption, upto 5%; carbon dioxide emissions also increase.
Under-inflation of a tyre increases tyre wear and reduces the life of the tyre.
Tyre gauges at Petrol stations are generally inaccurate, and this contributes to poor fuel consumption.
85% of punctures is related to tyres with a history of under-inflation.

Maintaining the correct air pressure in tyres enhances the life of the suspension-assembly.    
 
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  Advantages of Tubeless Tyres  
     
 

Better control and a hassle-free ride.

Even after a puncture, the loss of air occurs very slowly, as air escapes through the point of puncture alone, making tubeless tyres extremely safe.

Better fuel efficiency.

Lesser chance of tyre damage.

A tubeless tyre can flex over an object, giving it better impact resistance than can a tube tyre.

Since there is no tube inside the tyre, no heat is generated due to friction.
 
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  Indian History And Road Conditions  
 

During the last 50 years, the Indian automobile population has grown to an astounding 170 times its original size, whereas the road infrastructure has expanded by a multiple of 9.

The current estimated population of vehicles is over 5.5 crores.

The growth rate is about 25 – 30 lakhs per year.

The passenger car alone contributes about 11 – 12 lakhs per year.

ACCIDENTS AND LOSS OF LIVES:

Accidents are on the increase as the number of vehicles is on a phenomenal rise.

The loss of lives in accidents was close to ONE LAKH persons in 2003.

 
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  Four Wheeler Safety  
 

Always maintain correct tyre pressure, as it will help in effective braking.

Always wear seat belts. Wearing seat belts decreases fatalities by 20 – 30%

Always keep a fire extinguisher in the car to prevent major mishaps due to fire.

Do not use the air conditioner when the car is inundated by water.

Do not roll up your windows if your car is inundated by water, as power windows may prevent your exit when jammed. It is handy to keep a small hammer in the car.

 
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  Driving tips for safety  
 

Follow your lane while driving; avoid jumping lanes.

Always stick to the lane assigned to you and stay within the road’s specified speed limits.

Always look for road signs and give due importance to them.

Do not honk unnecessarily, as it causes air pollution

If you have a driver, avoid sitting in the back seat, to prevent confusion and chaos.

Do not accelerate when taking out a parked car. Always look forward for other moving vehicles in the road before moving forward slowly.

Use indicators while turning left or right at least 30 meters before turning. Be extremely careful when cutting lanes and parking areas

Be particularly careful when reversing your vehicle. Look for pedestrians and other obstacles.
Always leave early to avoid speeding.

Be careful when changing lanes. The indicator must be used.

Do not stop abruptly: slow down gradually before coming to a complete halt, so that the driver in the vehicle behind you has ample time to react.

Take adequate rest when going on long drives, to prevent fatigue and exhaustion.

On highways, avoid bumper-to-bumper traveling.

Drive at an optimum speed for traveling comfort, safety and better mileage.

While driving at night, ensure that all lights are working. Use a low beam to avoid blinding drivers of vehicles moving in the opposite direction.


 
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  Car Accessories  
 


 
 

There are two types of accessories in a car – Interior and Exterior.

 
 
Interior Exterior
Seat covers Lights
Car perfumes Car covers
Car Carpets or Mats Bumpers
Audio system Carriers
DVD system    
Airconditioner    
 
  TPMS is an interior and exterior accessory.

The only accessory that is adding value to the customer, pays back the customer while supporting the customer and the vehicle for a greater (better) safety.

 
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  Mechanical and environmental requirements of TPMS:  
     
 
Minimum size, so as to be accommodated in the rim.
Minimum weight, to minimize the imbalance between the wheel and mass forces.
Resistance against damage during tire installation.
Ability to resist and securely measure mounting forces on the rim.
The sensor unit must not present any sharp edges, corners or protrusions, in order to avoid catching the tyre bead during assembly.
Adjustability to wheel designs – the same sensor must be functional across different wheel designs.
Resistant to operational loads and forces.
Operating temperature range and reliable sealing.
Environmental resistance.
Ease and low cost of assembly.
   
 
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